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Transistors are active components and are found everywhere in electronic circuits.

BU208 Datasheet, Equivalent, Cross Reference Search

They are used as amplifiers and switching devices. As amplifiers, they are used in high and low frequency stages, oscillators, modulators, detectors and in any circuit needing to perform a function.

In digital circuits they are used as switches. There is a large number of manufacturers around the world who produce semiconductors transistors are members of this family of componentsso there are literally thousands of different types. Several different transistors are shown on 4. Their construction-material is most commonly silicon their marking has the letter B or germanium their marking has the letter A.

Original transistor were made from germanium, but they were very temperature-sensitive. Silicon transistors are much more temperature-tolerant and much cheaper to manufacture. Here are few examples: There is a possibility of a third letter R and Q – microwave transistors, or X – switch transistorbut these letters vary from manufacturer to manufacturer.

The number following the letter is of no importance to users. American transistor manufacturers have different marks, with a 2N prefix followed by a number 2N, for example. This mark is similar to diode marks, which have a 1N prefix e.

Japanese bipolar transistor are prefixed with a: Several different transistors are shown in photo 4. Low power transistors are housed in a small plastic or metallic cases of various shapes.

Bipolar transistors have three leads: Sometimes, HF transistors have another lead which is connected to the metal housing. This lead is connected to the ground of the circuit, to protect the transistor from possible external electrical interference. Four leads emerge from some other types, such as two-gate FETs.

High power transistors are different from low-to-medium power, both in size and in shape. These documents hold the information about the component’s correct use maximum current rating, power, amplification, etc. Placement of leads and different housing types for some commonly used transistors are in diagram 4.

Pinouts of some common packages. These transistors are the ones you will come across frequently in everyday work.

The TO-3 package, bi208 is used to house high-power transistors, has only two pins, one for base, and one for emitter. The collector is connected to the package, and this is connected to the rest of the circuit via one of the screws which fasten the transistor datazheet the heat-sink.

Transistors used with very high frequencies like BFR14 have pins shaped differently. One of the breakthroughs in the field of electronic components was the invention of SMD surface mount devices circuits. This technology allowed manufacturers to achieve tiny components with the same properties as their larger counterparts, and therefore reduce the size and cost of the design.

There is, however, a trade-off to this, SMD components are difficult to solder to the PC board and they usually need special soldering equipment. As we said, there are literally thousands of different transistors, many of them have similar characteristics, which makes it possible to replace a faulty transistor with a different one. The characteristics and similarities can be found in comparison charts. If you do not have one these charts, you can try some of the transistors you already have.


If the circuit continues to operate correctly, everything is ok.

It is also necessary to make sure the pinout is correct, before you solder it in place and power up the project. As a helpful guide, there is a chart in this chapter which shows a list of replacements for some frequently used transistors. Transistors are used in analog circuits to amplify dataeheet signal. They are datasyeet used in power supplies as a regulator and you will also find them used as a switch in digital circuits.

The best way to explore the basics of transistors is by experimenting. A simple circuit is shown below.


You will also need a battery, a small light bulb taken from a flashlight with properties near 4. These components should be connected as shown in figure 4. Working principle of a transistor: Resistor R isn’t really necessary, but if you don’t use it, you mustn’t turn the potentiometer pot to its high position, because that would destroy the transistor – this is because the DC voltage UBE voltage between the base and the emittershould not be higher than 0.

Turn the potentiometer to its lowest position. The bulb doesn’t light, which means there is no current passing through the transistor. As we already mentioned, the potentiometers lowest position means that UBE is equal to zero. When we turn the knob from its lowest position UBE gradually increases.

When UBE reaches 0. As the pot is turned further, the voltage on the base remains at 0. If the pot is turned fully, the base voltage will increase slightly to about 0. If we connected an ammeter between the collector and the bulb to measure ICanother ammeter between the pot and the base for measuring IBand a voltmeter between the ground and the base and gu208 the whole experiment, we will find some interesting data.

When the pot is turned, these values start to rise until the bulb starts to glow when they are: The end result we get from this experiment is that when the current on the base is changed, current on the collector is changed as well.

Bu028 look at another experiment which will broaden our knowledge of the transistor. A simple low frequency amplifier can be built from these components as shown in diagram 4. A simple transistor amplifier. It should be noted datazheet the schematic 4. The main difference is that the collector is connected to headphones. The “turn-on” resistor – the resistor on the base, is 1M.

When there is no resistor, there is no current flow IB, and no Ic current. When the resistor is connected to the circuit, base voltage is equal to 0.

The transistor has a gain of and this means the collector current will be 1 mA. And since the base current is in most cases insignificant compared to the collector current, it is considered that:. The relationship between the current flowing through the collector and the current flowing through the base is called the transistor’s current amplification coefficient, and is marked as hFE.


In our example, this coefficient is equal to:. Put the headphones on and place a fingertip on point 1. You will hear a noise. The noise heard from the headphones is that voltage, only amplified by the transistor. Let’s explain this circuit a bit more. Ac voltage with frequency 50Hz is connected to transistor’s base via the capacitor C.

Voltage on the base is now equal to the sum of a DC voltage 0. This means that this base voltage is higher than 0. Because of this, current on the collector is higher than 1mA fifty times per second, and fifty times lower.

This variable current is used to shift the membrane of the speakerphones forward fifty times per second and fifty times backwards, meaning that we can hear the 50Hz tone on the output. Listening to a 50Hz noise is not very interesting, so you could connect to points 1 and 2 some low frequency signal source CD player or a microphone.

There are literally thousands of different circuits using a transistor as an active, amplifying datashet. And all these transistors operate in a manner shown in our experiments, which means that by building this example, you’re actually building a basic building block of electronics. Selecting the correct transistor for a circuit is based on the following characteristics: If you need to change a faulty bbu208, or you feel comfortable enough to build a new circuit, pay attention to these three values.

Your circuit must not exceed the maximum rating values of the transistor. If this is disregarded bbu208 are possibilities of permanent circuit damage. Beside the values we mentioned, it is sometimes important to know the current amplification, and maximum frequency of operation. When there is a DC voltage UCE between the collector C and emitter E with a collector current, the transistor acts as a small electrical heater whose power is given with this equation:.

Because of that, the transistor is heating itself and everything in its proximity. Maximum power rating for a transistor, is PCmax found in a datasheet. So, if the voltage across the transistor is increased, the current must be dropped.

For example, maximum ratings for a BC transistor are: According to the recommended values given by the manufacturer, optimum results stability, low distortion and noise, high gain, etc. There are occasions when the heat generated by a transistor cannot be overcome by adjusting voltages and current.

Bu20 this case the transistors have a metal plate with hole, which is used to attach it to a heat-sink to allow the heat to be passed to a larger surface. Current amplification is of importance when used in some circuits, where there is a need for equal amplification of two transistors. For example, 2NH transistors have hFE within range between 20 and datasyeet, which means that there is a possibility that one of them has datadheet and other This means that in cases when two identical coefficients are needed, they should be measured.

Some multimeters have the option for measuring this, but most don’t. Because of this we have provided a simple circuit bbu208. All you need is an option on your multimeter for measuring DC current up to 5mA.