The hilly and mountainous countryside of the Urartian territory is and was a perfect A quick glance at the annals of the Urartian kings suggests that some of . In the Urartian concept of the divine, the supreme god could be appeased god of Urartu transformed him into a fighting god, a fearless hero whose glance. Cimmerians and/or Scythians in Urartu’s demise will not be considered and even a cursory glance at the material suggests that the graves may well have.

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As in all human interactions the basis is one of equality in the roles of host and guest. This defining mutual respect and a shared sense of responsibility as the guiding principle in an adventure where the parties involved are, by definition, different in their outlook and way of life. When Turks entered the tourism arena- that was not so long ago- they were armed with a tradition of hospitality rather than sophisticated facilities or a mentality for providing service. Although Turkey now has an excellent tourism infrastructure, the motivation of most Turks remains one of sincerity and courtesy.

The desire of Turks to urarut understood and valued, to communicate and learn about people from other lands is a much more important motivation. Interpret their enthusiasm to glancce with you from this perspective. They prefer to make long-term acquaintances uarrtu spending time uradtu, exchanging cards, letters and gifts rather than receive payment or large tips for any help granted. This attitude may change as the tourism industry develops further in the coming decades, and much still depends on the visitors, but for now the sweetness of the Turkish people is unspoiled.

Armenia at glance

Here are some tips about social graces and conduct which may be useful in interpreting the goings-on around you, helping you to enjoy your participation in this social landscape even more. How is the family? How is your health? It is expected that everyone will inquire after the health and well-being of everyone else at first.

During religious holidays, greetings are even more important. Young people visit and kiss the hands of elderly family members. Every friend and family is visited urarru order irartu renew bonds and kinship. Children receive pocket money and gifts, and responsibilities for social urarth are fulfilled. Like elsewhere, these are joyous occasions.

However, celebrations emphasize traditional, social and spiritual aspects, and a certain amount of decorum in action and appearance is expected from everyone. At the dinner table it is customary for the hostess to offer additional servings many times and with great insistence.

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The guest is expected to accept the offer after several such offers. Dinners are leisurely affairs, to be savoured slowly along with the delicious home-cooked food. Sometimes, guests bring flowers or sweets to such occasions. During a typical after-dinner coffee, tea, candy, cookies, pastries and fruit are served.

In business relationships the whole affair is conducted as a social occasion, and completed with greetings and sharing coffee, tea or food and drinks, depending on the extent of the business. Even in ordinary shopping a lot of personal information is exchanged between the vendor and the customer, setting the stage for everyone to fulfil their various responsibilities. Bargaining is not a simple game of negotiation between adversarial parties but part of socialization and friendly chitchat to confirm the non-adversarial nature of the activity.

In Turkey you will experience an incredible diversity in nature, culture, history, beliefs and ideas. AS a bridge between Europe and Asia, Turkey has so much to offer visitors: This in itself may not be a challenge for the seasoned traveller.

After all, diversity is the most prized feature of favourite destinations. In Turkey this diversity is rich enough to challenge even the most experienced eye because it is packed into tight spaces with abrupt changes of scenery. This is why people sometimes describe the Turkish landscape as a “symphony of sounds, smells and people in the most unlikely combinations of appearance and action”.

Due to Turkey’s diverse geography, one can experience four different climates in any one day. This rectangular-shaped country is bordered on three sides by three different seas. Its shores are laced with beaches, bays, coves, ports, islands and peninsulas. Turkey is also blessed with majestic mountains and valleys, lakes, rivers, waterfalls and caves perfect for winter and summer tourism as well as sports of all kinds. Fans of skiing, mountain climbers, trekkers, hikers and hunters can all enjoy new and unforgettable experiences in Turkey.


The country is rich in hot springs, healing waters and mud baths, which are highly recommended by the medical authorities as a remedy for many diseases. But Turkey is above all a huge open-air museum, a repository of all the civilisations nurtured by the soils of Anatolia. Besides its great sights and monuments, Turkey offers unlimited opportunities for leisure and pleasure.

Majestic mountains are ideal for climbers, hikers, skiers and paragliders. There are over km of coastline laced with picturesque bays and coves offering not only unique spots for summer holidays but also exciting opportunities for scuba diving, sailing, parasailing and cruising. Year-round sunshine destinations are accessible in Turkey, while there is plenty of snow in others.

Seniors, historylovers, yachtsmen, mountaineers, young parents with toddlers and business people who look for new adventures can all find something special in Turkey. Turkey is like a mosaic made up of many different reliefs and formations: It is characterized by a central plateau surrounded by chains of mountains to the north, west and south and a rugged mountainous region in the east with an average elevation of metres.

The Northern Anatolia mountain range and the Taurus range in the south stretch like arcs, becoming ever denser in the east.

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In the west, however, the mountains descend gently towards the sea. Surrounded by seas on three sides, it is placed in the temperate climate zone. The climate varies considerably from region to region, however: Because of these variations in climate, the fauna and flora are some of the richest in the world. Turkey is home to a number of ornamental flowers, the most notable being the tulip.

This period of elegance and amusement in 17th-century Turkey was also symbolized by this flower, giving the era the name “the Tulip Age”. Turkey has a great variety of wild animals, with around species of mammals. The forest belt to the north is home to grey bears, while the south is home to wild goats. Sea turtles and seals play in the waters of the Mediterranean and the Aegean. Just as in other parts of the world, some species have become extinct or are on the verge of extinction.

There are species of indigenous or migratory birds, some of which are extinct in Europe, such as the black vulture. The most important species for environmentalists is the “bald Ibis”, a peculiar bird with a bald pink head and drooping feathers. If you take a cross-section along the east-west axis, you will encounter the rugged, snow-capped mountains where winters are long and cold; the highlands where the spring season with its rich wildflowers and rushing creeks extends into long, cool summers; the dry steppe with rolling hills, endless stretches of wheat fields and barren bedrock that take on the most incredible shades of gold, violet and cool and warm greys as the sun traverses the sky; the magical land of fairy chimneys and cavernous hillsides; and eventually the warm, fertile valleys between cultivated mountainsides of the lace-like shores of the Aegean where nature is friendly and life has always been easy.

A north-south cross-section begins with the lush, temperate zone of the Black Sea coast, well protected by a chain of high mountain ranges, cultivated in hazelnuts, corn and tea which will become a part of the daily ritual during your stay here.

High passes and winding roads offer breathtaking views of the Black Sea, leading to highlands and steppe, with orchards tucked into the foothills of lower mountains; then on to the vast Konya plain, and up the Toros Taurus Mountains into coniferous forests, which eventually descend to a scrubby maquis fragrant with bay leaves and oregano as the Mediterranean coast approaches.

Then, if you turn east, passing banana plantations and cotton fields, you will come to the desert-like part of Turkey. Just north of Syria, the earth displays all the textures and shades of brown imaginable. In short, for every two to four hours of driving, you find yourself in a different geographical zone with all the attendant changes in scenery, temperature, altitude, humidity, vegetation and weather. Europe, Africa and Asia. It has an ecological diversity surpassing any other place along the 40th north latitude.


This diversity is reflected in the intermingling of all species of animals just as they were found before the geological separation of the land masses occurred, but whose habitats are now dispersed among these continents. Now it is possible to observe the yearly ebb and flow of nature as birds continue on their migratory routes twice a year. The flamingos nest in the river valleys of the Aegean and the Mediterranean and spend the winter in the saltwater lakes of the inlands.

If you happen to be visiting Dalyan or some other beaches along the Mediterranean on a warm spring night in May, you will be sharing the sand dunes with one of the most delightfully shy creatures in the world, the sea turtle, which lays its eggs in the sand at this time of year. Many such familiar fruits as cherries, apricots, almonds and figs also originate in Turkey.

In this, the motherland of wheat, the taste of ordinary Turkish bread surpasses any other when eaten freshly baked. The orchards, vineyards, and vegetable fields grow delicate and vibrant crops. As well as grains, staple crops include rice, cotton, sugar beets, tobacco and potatoes.

This diversity and abundance of food products have contributed to the richness of the Turkish cuisine. Anatolia itself became a crossroads of peoples, cultures and religions. Turkey has an extremely rich cultural heritage.

Perhaps no other land has witnessed so many diverse civilisations over the last 11, years.

After the great Mesopotamians, the Hittite and Urartian kingdoms flourished in Anatolia. The Ionian and Roman civilisations predominated the western Anatolia. Christianity, for example, thrived in these lands and Islam was glorified by the Seljuks and Ottomans.

People of various origins came in waves and mingled with those already settled, each wave resulting in a new synthesis. Between BC and AD, this landscape was the centre of world civilisation. Interpretation of the world scene today is based upon our understanding of what took place on this landscape, and which is now manifested in the ruins and monuments which adorn the landscape.

In Anatolia, the settlement pattern is more or less as it was during the time of the ancient civilisations. There is a good chance that the road you are travelling on is the same one that great warriors of East and West trod, colourful caravans passed along, and couriers with mail or secret treaties galloped. Perhaps it is the same road travelled by St Paul and his companions, or by Sufis spreading their divine knowledge. Graceful aqueducts built by the Romans made urban concentrations possible.

Bridges built by famous royal architect Sinan dot the countryside and are still used for the safe passage of goods and services. Caravanserais dating back to the Seljuk Empire of the 11th century offered sanctuary and relief to weary travellers. You can even stay in a caravanserai today, as several have been restored as hotels. In addition to the historic edifices proudly displayed at such main archaeological sites as Troy, Pergamum, Ephesus, Miletus, Priene, Didyma, Aphrodisias, Heraclia, Caunos, Perge, and Aspendos, many coastal villages and towns are blessed with their very own Anatolian ruins on the outskirts.

This is usually an ancient theatre commanding a spectacular view of the beach where villagers will tell you Cleopatra often swam. It is probably what it has always been — the local market place! Until very recently the cave refuges in Cappadocia were used by villagers as cold storage or wine cellars. The Anatolian hinterland will show you glimpses of ancient civilisations: From these civilisations come many familiar legends: Then there are the smaller sites, both sacred and ordinary, but with profound meaning: